A robust child monitoring program forms the foundation of primary pediatric healthcare services. This monitoring involves tracking the growth and development of all children, evaluating specific diseases, and providing preventive health practices such as vaccinations and health education. The goal of this service is to maintain a healthy state, reduce infant and child mortality, and prevent diseases and disabilities through early diagnosis and treatment.


There are recommended programs for the robust monitoring of healthy children. These include examinations within the first 24 hours after birth, during hospital discharge, at 7-10 days, monthly for the first 6 months, every three months between 6 months and 2 years, twice a year at the age of 2, and annually after the age of 3.

In this article, we will discuss the monitoring of healthy children during the preschool period.

The doctor’s observation in the examination room, conversations with the child and their family, followed by an examination, allow for the evaluation of the child’s physical, motor, and psychosocial development. Each check-up should include height-weight measurements, body mass index calculation for obesity screening, and blood pressure measurement. Blood pressure measurement is recommended annually starting from the age of 3.

Vision and hearing screening tests should be conducted during the preschool period.

The importance of tooth brushing should be emphasized, and children should be directed to a dentist for routine dental check-ups.

For children attending preschool, parasite screening in stool and, if not done before, a complete blood count for iron deficiency should be performed. In developing countries, the timely diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infections, a major cause of chronic kidney failure, are crucial. Screening for urinary tract infection through urine testing should be performed at the age of 5.

Atherosclerotic changes in the vessel wall begin during childhood and adolescence. To reduce the risk of coronary artery disease in adulthood, measures such as adjusting the diet, increasing activity, and preventing smoking should be taken from childhood. Individuals with a family history of coronary heart disease have been shown to have higher cholesterol and lipid levels in adulthood. Fasting lipid levels should be measured in children over the age of two. Children with parents having a cholesterol level above 240mg/dl or a family history of smoking, hypertension, obesity, or diabetes are considered high-risk. Total cholesterol levels should be determined in these children.

Vaccination is an integral part of child health services. Between the ages of four and six, a combination vaccine including measles, mumps, rubella, and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-polio-Haemophilus influenza type b should be administered. The American Academy of Pediatrics also recommends a varicella booster dose for children who have not had chickenpox before this age.

From the age of three onwards, during check-ups, children and their families should be provided with information on hygiene habits, tooth brushing, and preschool education.

As observed, observation, examination, screening tests, vaccination, and family education form the basis of robust child monitoring.

Taking advantage of this service, which allows for early diagnosis and treatment of diseases, is every child’s natural right.