Neurology is the branch of medical science that deals with the physiology and diseases of the nervous system. Nervous system; It consists of the brain, spinal cord (spinal cord) and peripheral nervous system. The treatment of diseases that develop in any of these three departments and do not require surgical intervention is performed by the neurology department. ​ Neurology is divided into two separate branches: adult and child neurology. In our neurology department, our specialists provide outpatient and inpatient treatment services, as well as intensive care services for the follow-up of diseases requiring intensive care.

What diseases does neurology treat?

  • Cerebrovascular Diseases: Cerebrovascular diseases include cerebral hemorrhages and cerebral vascular occlusions. Stroke, as it is commonly called, occurs when one of the brain vessels is blocked and that part of the brain cannot be fed, and can manifest as various neurological conditions. Cell death occurs in the areas fed by the blocked vessel, and depending on the area, loss of strength on one side of the body, loss of speech, dizziness, visual disturbances and loss of consciousness may occur. Neurologists use Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Computed Tomography (CT) examinations to detect the blocked vessel and the affected area and organize the treatment. Apart from vascular occlusion, cerebral hemorrhage due to blood pressure and venous hemorrhage due to occlusion of the veins are also among the cerebrovascular diseases. Monitoring and treatment of brain hemorrhages that do not require surgical evacuation are also performed by neurologists. Cases that develop loss of consciousness and require respiratory or cardiac support are treated in the intensive care unit, and patients who do not require intensive care support are treated in the clinic.
  • Epilepsy: Epilepsy, commonly known as epilepsy or seizures, is among the diseases followed by the neurology unit. The most common type of epilepsy seizures are generalized tonic-clonic seizures that occur with involuntary movements in the arms and legs, loss of consciousness, foaming at the mouth, and urinary incontinence. The primary examination method used in the monitoring and treatment of epilepsy is EEG. Epilepsy may begin in childhood or, rarely, occur in adulthood. In case of seizures that occur in adulthood, the person should definitely consult a neurologist and have the necessary examinations done. The primary tests to be performed are MRI and EEG. Epilepsy treatment is performed by neurologists with antiepileptic drugs. In our hospital, both adult and child EEG and, when necessary, Sleep EEG are performed.
  • Headache: Headache is one of the most common complaints in our society. Among the headache types, the most common are migraine or tension headache. Diagnosis is made according to the patient’s complaints and the type of headache. Diagnosis and treatment of headache is performed by the neurology unit. Generally, the treatment of patients is arranged according to anamnesis or by using imaging methods such as MRI or CT when deemed necessary by the neurologist.
  • Dementia: Although the most common cause of forgetfulness in young ages is depression, the incidence of dementia in society is increasing due to the prolongation of human life. The most common cause of dementia in older ages is Alzheimer’s disease. Complaints that begin with forgetfulness progress to complaints such as decrease in cognitive activities, thought disorders, difficulty in performing daily activities, refusal to eat, and introversion. Apart from Alzheimer’s disease, dementia may also occur due to disorders in the structure of the brain vessels. Follow-up and treatment of these diseases are done by neurologists.
  • Movement Disorders: Movement disorders most commonly include diseases such as Parkinson’s disease, dystonia, essential tremor, dyskinesias and restless legs syndrome. The diagnosis and treatment of Parkinson’s disease, which is characterized by tremors in the hands, involuntary movements, loss of facial expression, and gait disorders, is performed by the neurology unit. If, in addition to Parkinson’s disease, you have complaints such as tremors in the hands, pendulum-like shaking in the head, involuntary movements in the legs at night, burning sensation, you can get rid of your complaints in the light of the necessary treatments by applying to neurology units.
  • Sleep Disorders: With increasing sources of stress, sleep disorders have become one of the most common health problems today. Pathologies such as snoring and sleep apnea (interruption of breathing during sleep) can disrupt the quality of your sleep at night, causing insufficient sleep and a constant feeling of fatigue. Polysomnography (sleep test), which must be performed in the evaluation of these situations, can be performed both at home and in a hospital environment. Sleep EEG, which is used both in sleep evaluation and in the diagnosis of some types of epilepsy, is also performed in the neurology unit. CPAP, BPAP and ASV titration, which are among the treatment options for sleep disorders due to snoring, are applied in our hospital. If you have a complaint of snoring or sleep apnea that is noticed by your relatives, or if you have difficulty falling asleep or think that you are oversleeping, do not forget to make an appointment with the neurology department.
  • Demyelinating diseases: Myelin is an insulating substance that covers the sheath nerve cells and is essential for the nervous system to maintain its function. Due to the loss of this substance, various neurological findings occur depending on the functions of the nerve cells in which the loss occurs. The most common demyelinating disease is Multiple Sclerosis (MS). MS progresses in attacks. After attacks, complaints may decrease, disappear, or permanent damage may develop. The diagnosis of an attack is made by the presence of contrast material-holding plaques seen on MRI, in addition to the newly emerging neurological damage in the patient. Apart from attack treatment, there are also various preventive treatment options that will prevent patients from having attacks. MS is a chronic disease and its follow-up and treatment is done by neurologists. Apart from MS, there are other rare demyelinating diseases such as neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and Devic’s disease.
  • Muscle Diseases: The most common autoimmune disease among muscle diseases is Myasthenia Graves, and the most common genetically transmitted disease is Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. Since there are disorders in nerve-muscle transmission in these diseases, muscle thinning, decrease in muscle mass and impaired muscle contraction are observed. Myasthenia Graves most commonly affects the eye muscles. Drooping eyelids, visual disturbances and double vision due to weakness in the eye muscles, difficulty in chewing and swallowing, and weakening of the arm and leg muscles are observed in later stages. Diagnosis and treatment of these diseases are performed by the neurology department.

In addition to these diseases, the diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as vertigo (dizziness), facial paralysis, facial pain, and diabetes-related nerve damage (diabetic polyneuropathy) are also carried out by the neurology department.

What are the main examinations performed in the Neurology Department?

Neurologists deal with the diagnosis, follow-up and treatment of a wide range of diseases that concern all parts of the nervous system and neuromuscular diseases. In the diagnosis and follow-up of these diseases, tests and imaging methods that measure neural messages are used. Some of the tests performed in our hospital are:

  • Polysomnography (Sleep Examination) (Hospital and Home): Polysomnography test, that is, sleep test used in the diagnosis of sleep disorders, is applied both in the hospital and at home.
  • EEG (Child-Adult, Sleep-Wake): EEG test, which is used in the diagnosis and follow-up of epilepsy and some other diseases, can be applied to children and adults.
  • EMG (Child-Adult): Connections between nerve-nerve, nerve-muscle are realized by electrical conduction. Electromyelography (EMG) test is an electrophysiological test used to measure disorders in nerves and connections between nerves and muscles and is applied by neurologists. The areas where it is most frequently used are the diagnosis and treatment of trap neuropathies such as Carpal Tunnel Syndrome, nerve damage in lumbar and neck herniations, demonstration of nerve-muscle conduction disorders in muscle diseases, facial paralysis, diabetes-related polyneuropathy, motor neuron diseases such as ALS or Guillain Barre. It is necessary to undergo long-term training to perform EMG, which is a very complex test. ‌‌
  • Evoked Potentials: Tests such as SSEP (Somatosensory Evoked Potential), VEP (Visual Evoked Potential), BERA (Auditory Evoked Potential) used in the diagnosis of some diseases are performed by measuring the response of the nervous system to the electrical current given from certain areas.

Assoc. Dr. Erdal Eroğlu

Randevu Oluştur C V Turk...

Dr. Lecturer Member Aslıhan TAŞKIRAN SAĞ

Randevu Oluştur C V Turk...